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Painters’ Colours, Oils, and Varnishes: A Practical Manual by George H. Hurst, F.C.S. – published in 1892

Painters’ Colours, Oils, and Varnishes: A Practical Manual by George H. Hurst, F.C.S. Published in 1892 by Charles Griffin & Company, Limited, Exeter Street, Strand, London

I love this book and, I want to share some of what is in it, with links, so that the information can be used by artists and people doing various crafts.  The old information is fascinating and, coupled with what is available today – it is usable!  Be safe!  Be careful!  Most of this is not safe for children.  Please, always  keep safety in mind.

IMG_0088As I get going on this little project, I will add excerpts and links below.  Please feel free to comment, add and send links – the more information and the easier it becomes to find it, the better for everyone!

I am going to try to update this post regulary, with more excerpts and more links, as I work my way through this book!

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Chapter I:  Introductory. Colour, Colours, Paints and Varnishes.

from page 4, “Cause of Colour in Coloured Bodies. — The actual reasons why bodies such as vermilion, magenta, or emerald green are coloured, it is almost impossible to investigate in the present state of knowledge, since the cause, whatever it may be, must be due to the molecular construction of the different compounds about which very little is known…”

  • Geology is the key word here.  Geologists have been working to increase our knowledge base of Earth in general and specifically, in this case, our knowledge of pigments. Here is a great place to read about colour, Dust to Dust:  A Geology of Color by Heidi Gustafson  –  if you like playing in the dirt, foraging for rocks and then doing something with them, Heidi Gustafson’s website has some great information in it!

from page 5, “Colour Theories. — Two theories of colour are in use to explain the coloured effects of light.  The old theory… Brewster… The more modern theory, first broached by Young and more fully developed by Helmholtz…”

  • Sir David Brewster’s (1871-1868) work on colour theory is from the 1830’s.  His work “On a new analysis of solar light” was written in 1831 and published by Charles Tait, and Bell & Bradfute; and T. Cadell, London.  One place I have found credit for Sir David Brewster’s theories on the perception of colour is in an article by Peter John Brownlee, “Color Theory and the Perception of Art“, published in 2009 by The University of Chicago Press Journals.
  • Thomas Young, M.D. (1773-1829), was a scientist studying human perception of colour and in 1802 wrote a treatise speculating on how the human eye works to perceive colour.  There is also a lecture series by Thomas Young, “A Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts” which was published in London by Joseph Johson, St. Paul’s Church Yard, in 1807.
  • Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894), continued work on the development of Thomas Young’s theories of human colour perception.  This work is known as the “Young-Hemholtz Theory” and furthers Thomas Young’s theories as to how our eyes actually work to perceive color.
  • This body of knowledge has been expanded upon for more than the 250 years shown in these writings and continues to grow today.  Here are just a few examples of the psychology of colour perception that are a little more recent.

from page 6, “Colours. — … the term “colours” is used in two senses — first, to express the sensation which light of various kinds… excites on the retina of the eye, and which sensation is purely functional; second, … [the] imparting [of] colour to other bodies;  such bodies are known as colouring matters and may be divided into two groups, dyestuffs and pigments….”

  • sensations of light, through rather than on the retina, continue to be studied by the scientific and psychological communities today.  This is fascinating research and the McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas has some open access resources on this subject.
  • dyestuffs, as referred to by George Hurst, are materials which provide ‘soluable’ material that can be used to add colour to another item.  In other words, dyeing or staining, imparts temporary colour to other items.  If you have access to a copy of the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition and history of the word ‘dyestuff’ is fascinating.  Most libraries have a copy of the OED and may also allow access to the online version.
  • pigments, then, as defined by George Hurst in 1892, are ‘nonsoluable’ materials which provide a more permanent, opaque colour to things like paint.  Most of the chapters in this book are about pigments, where to find them, what to find them in, how to extract them and, how to use them.

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Chapter II:  White Pigments

Chapter III:  Red Pigments

Chapter IV:  Yellow and Orange Pigments

Chapter V:  Green Pigments

Chapter VI:  Blue Pigments

Chapter VI:  Brown Pigments

Chapter VII:  Black Pigments

Chapter IX:  Lakes

Chapter X:  Assay and Analysis of Pigments

Chapter XI:  Colour and Paint Machinery

Chapter XII:  Paint Vehicles

Chapter XIII:  Driers

Chapter XIV:  Varnishes

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A related post, and… a very interesting one!

Colour Theory from 1882

book cover   title page

The link takes you to a high resolution copy of this amazing 800+ page book.

 

Time, Through the Eyes of a Child and, William Faulkner…

I have been reading lately.  I have been reading a lot, lately….

 

The Sound and the Fury.  Written by William Faulkner.  First published in 1929.  Free to read online.  Free and available at most public libraries.  Inexpensive at book sales.  Available in used book stores…

I have not actually finished this novel.  It is a very difficult work to read.  I think I could just skim through it and I would know a few names, a few characters.  I can’t do that to this book.

There are no chapters.  There is simply an awareness of others and the unspoken thoughts of one.  It took me a long time to realize this even though the difference between the two modes of communication are visibly apparent (unspoken thought is in italics).  Neither the past nor the future seems to hold any relevance as the present unravels with painful awareness.

The book begins with the unspoken thoughts of a pre-verbal child.  A slow child.  A child not like the others.  Faulkner gave me the opportunity to listen in to this child’s impressions of the world.  To the unspoken needs and desires of one.

About halfway through the book, possibly this is about halfway through a young man’s life, a watch crystal is purposefully broken and the hands are removed.  Time is still running but the ability to count the seconds into minutes, the minutes into hours….  using that watch, has been stilled.  Does time have meaning if you can no longer measure it?

This book has grown difficult again.  I am putting it down, again.  I have not read any of the hundreds of discussions on this book.  I would like to wait until I finish it and come to my own conclusions.  For this reason, Faulker and his boys will have to wait on me.  Time, for the written word may be almost endless.  These words will wait for me….

 

I found this book, and many more, in a library book sale.  I had purchased other books the day before and was given a paper bag with $5 written on it.  If I came back the next day I could fill my paper bag with paperbacks.  As many as the bag would hold.  They would all be mine for that $5.  I did.  I have found some wonderful books this way.

Library book sales are often run by groups called “Friends of the Library” or a similar name.  Your local library may hold these sales several times a year.  There are many charitable organizations that also hold book drives and book sales.  These are fun events and great places to begin building a library of real books or, adding to your existing collection, with real friends….

 

 

 

 

Solving for Pattern or, an Economy of Size

I have been reading lately.  I have been reading a lot, lately….  I could not sleep last night.  An old article by Wendell Berry gave me thoughts to consider and apply to my own small business.

 

Solving for Pattern.  Written by Wendell Berry.  Chapter 9 in The Gift of the Land:  Further Essays Cultural & Agricultural.  North Point Press, 1981.  Originally published in the Rodale Press periodical The New Farm.

Wendell Berry is a farmer and an author.  His writing is thought provoking and disturbing, well written, easy to read and difficult to walk away from…

 

Wendell Berry has been on my reading list for a long time.  It is time for us to get to know him, now!  Solving for Pattern is a short article that poses questions and discusses the long term meaning of economy.  Not of economics.  Economy.  Economy of size.  Small businesses.  Small farms.

Questions…  I went back to university several years ago.  I thought I just wanted to take a few courses, make my evenings a little more interesting.  I discovered that I was learning to read in a way that I had not even considered possible.  I am still learning about reading but now, I am also reading to learn to ask questions.  Wendell Berry has been asking these questions for a long time.  His questions about patterns, economy, conservation, and healthy living are worth considering.

 

Further Readings (I have already started reading The Unsettling of America):

Wendell Berry, The Unsettling of America:  Culture & Agriculture.  1977.  Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1977.  This book is available in most libraries.  Read a review of this book here.

James George Frazer, The Golden Bough.  First published in 1890.  My edition was published in 1994 by Oxford University Press.  Available online, free, here.

 

 

 

Water Rights & Environmental Damage

I have been reading lately.  I have been reading a lot, lately….  I finished reading this article last night, on the bus on my way home from work.  Yes, I use public transit.  I gave up my personal gas pedal almost 3 years ago.

Water Rights and Environmental Damage:  An Enquiry into Stewardship in the Context of Abstraction Licensing Reform in England and Wales.  Written by Donald McGillivary.  Published by Environmental Law Review, Volume 15, 2013.  Pages 205-224.

Donald McGillivray, Professor of Environmental Law, University of Sussex, has a current publication list here.

I found this article doing a random search on water rights.  I was looking more towards Western Canada, where I live, but all information is good and this article is full of definitions that will probably help me in further reading.  And, bonus marks, Professor McGillivray’s writing is concise and clear.

Probably the most important things that I realized while reading this article was that the environment is not protected by stewardship rights or laws.  That the only time we really protect the environment is when there is an overlap of needs between someone holding water (or land) rights and the environment.  In other words, when it benefits someone to protect something, the environment is looked after.  Not something that I had not realized before but, seeing it in a published article is different.

 

A couple of ‘Further Readings’ (from the footnotes) that I made note of:

E.D. Elliot, ‘The Tragi-Comedy of the Commons: Evolutionary Biology, Economics and Environmental Law‘ (2001) 20 Viriginia Environmental Law Journal 17, pages 17-18.

C.P. Rodgers.  ‘Nature’s Place? Property Rights, Property Rules and Environmental Stewardship‘ (2009), Volume 68(3) Cambridge Law Journal 550.

 

 

National Gallery Postcard, circa 1950’s – van de Velde, Coast Scene: Calm

This is a vintage postcard out of my collection.  I like pieces of paper.  They are tangible things that people place a great deal of trust in.  Maps, charts, postcards, money, stamps….  They are all worth something, they just aren’t always worth a lot.

Please note that several of the links I have placed in this post are slightly ‘off topic.’  That is, there is a link showing for Trafalgar Square but, it is a link to “interglacial deposits” that were found there during the 1950s.  There is so much to this world that is just beneath the surface (or, the pavement….).

 

This postcard was printed for the National Gallery in London – and most likely purchased as a gallery souvenir.

National Gallery, Card No. 1115. Van de Velde: Coast Scene: Calm (871).  Printed in Great Britain for the Trustees under the authority of Her Majesty's Stationery Office by Waterlow & Sons Limited, London.  Wt: P1838

National Gallery, Card No. 1115. Van de Velde: Coast Scene: Calm (871). Printed in Great Britain for the Trustees under the authority of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office by Waterlow & Sons Limited, London. Wt: P1838

The National Gallery, located in Trafalgar Square, London, was established in 1824 and has been open to the public – free of charge – for most of the years between then and now…

The painting on this postcard is “Dutch Vessels Inshore and Men Bathing” by Willem van de Velde, 1661.  It is a painting of Men-of-War and men.

 

There are links to peer-reviewed articles in this post.  There is a lot of knowledge in these papers.  One of my many habits is to go through the reference lists, end notes and bibliographies to look for more information that I might enjoy reading.  This is a link to a small portion of the research that the authors of the articles have included.

Reading List for April 16, 2015 post

Why?  Because everything is connected…

 

 

Beautiful Warnings….

The cherry trees lining the street where I work now are in bloom.  I have the privilege of walking by them several days a week.  Many of the buds have opened.

The "For Rent" sign was removed from this nest on Monday afternoon.  Renovations are underway and the new tenants are noisy and cheeky....

The “For Rent” sign was removed from this nest on Monday afternoon. Renovations are underway and the new tenants are noisy and cheeky….

 

This afternoon, there are more blossoms open.  Tomorrow the show of pink against blue should be stunning.

Tuesday Blossoms and the sky is even bluer....

Tuesday Blossoms and the sky is even bluer….

 

I have been privileged to stand watch as a four hour sunset turned into a four hour sunrise.  That was many July’s ago during a 12 hour graveyard shift on the roof of a coker at Syncrude.

I do not have a photograph, only memories…  Inside the plant, personal cameras are not allowed to be carried by employees.

 

Today is February 23, 2014.

The photos of the cherry blossoms were taken in Richmond, British Columbia, Canada where in February’s past we have huddled under umbrellas, pulling our jackets close as the cold winds blew in off of the water.  I grew up here.  The cold winds and wet weather of winter are what is necessary to keep the rain forests green.

 

Climate change is real.

 

I have recently read Naomi Klein’s newest book, This Changes Everything:  Capitalism vs. The Climate.  I do not believe that she exaggerates any point.

 

Every small thing we do (or don’t do) to stop the change helps.

Mangrove Forests….

I just found a wonderful and interactive site!  Well, this isn’t just a site, this is a database and, it is worth a visit….

http://mangroves.elaw.org/map

 

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Now, I tried to put the following into my own words but, it is so perfectly written that I have copied and pasted it here for you:

A Case for Mangroves
The approximately 70 distinct species of mangroves in the world cover roughly 17,000,000 hectares globally (Valiela et al.  2001) – only 0.12 percent of the Earth’s surface (Sullivan 2005, Ellison 2008).  The greatest diversity is in Southeast Asia (36-46 species); the lowest diversity is in the United States and the Middle East (1-3 species) (Polidoro et al.  2010).  Mangroves are being cut down or otherwise destroyed at such a high rate that they may be functionally extinct by 2100 (Duke et al.  2007).  In just the last 50 years, 30-50 percent of the global acreage has been lost.  (Alongi 2002, Duke et al. 2007)  Mangroves are among the most valuable and most threatened ecosystems on Earth.  The ecosystems services they provide—e.g., buffering coastal communities against flooding and storms, fiber production, habitat for thousands of species of birds, mammals and marine species—are estimated to be worth US $1.6 billion dollars/year (Polidoro et al.  2010).  In addition, recent evidence suggests that mangroves sequester carbon more effectively than any other tropical forest (Donato et al.  2011).”

This is important!

 

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There are 65 of the most influential papers on mangroves and mangrove forests listed on this site.  All are worth reading but, we don’t all have that much time….

If there is a paper that you feel is missing, please add it in the comments below.  I look forward to hearing from you.

 

Dear Mr. Deity,

Thank you for sending us your newest YouTube video.  You have taken great care to explain why it is wrong to punch someone in the nose for not liking someone’s mom and I appreciate this!

 

A link to Mr. Deity

The Way of the Mister  —  These words are offensive!  This video is offensive!  It is a must watch!  I am not offended by this video, I am offended by the fact that the Catholic Church will probably get away with yet another offensive speech by yet another offensive leader, without understanding what it is they have done, are doing, and will likely continue to do.

I have a hard copy of the transcript (available beneath the YouTube video), just in case it disappears!

A link to the article in The Guardian where the Pope is quoted.

 

There is no excuse.

 

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Now, a few bits from articles on a few of the points made by Mr. Deity (aka Brian Keith Dalton).  It is important because it is all connected!

Please note that I have not read any of these articles (yet).  I have taken a quick peek and I have saved and/or printed them for later perusal and bibliography mining!

 

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Satire:

Botha, E.  2014.  A means to an end:  Using political satire to go viralPublic Relations Review, Volume 40, Number 1.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2013.11.023

Joan Ozark Holmer.  1981.  Religious Satire in Herrick’s “The Fairie Temple: or, Oberons Chappell.  Renaissance and Reformation: Renaissance et Réforme, Volume 17, No. 1, pages 40-56.

Drew Kaup.  2014.  Unaffiliation:  Where the New Atheists Went Wrong, and How South Park Paved the Way for the ‘Rise of the Nones’.  Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Emory College of Arts and Sciences of Emory University, Department of Religion.

Heather L. LaMarre, Kristen D. Landreville and Michael A. Beam.  2009.  The Irony of Satire:  Political Ideology and the Motivation to See What You Want to See in The Colbert ReportInternational Journal of Press/Politics, Volume 14, Number 2, April 2009, pages 212-231.

Richard Strier.  2011.  The Unrepentant Renaissance:  from Petrarch to Shakespeare to Milton.  University of Chicago Press.  (Available in libraries, bookstores and online.)

George W. Whiting.  1930.  Political Satire in London Stage Plays, 1680-83Modern Philology, Volume 28, No. 1 (August, 1930), pages 29-43.

 

Moral Credibility:

Dan M. Kahan.  1997.  Between Economics and Sociology:  The New Path of DeterrenceMichigan Law Review, Volume 95, No. 8 (August 1997), pages 2477-2497.

Paul H. Robinson.  1994.  Moral Credibility and CrimeThe Atlantic Monthly. 8/18/1994.  Draft only.

Paul H. Robinson and Sarah Robinson.  2014.  Punishment:  Drop City and the Utopian Communes, Chapter 3 in Living Beyond the Law:  Lessons from Pirates, Prisoners, Lepers, and Survivors.  Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, and Plymouth, UK:  Rowman & Littlefield.  Pages 49-62.

 

The Catholic Pope and Violence:

Patrick McKinley Brennan.  2013.  Subsidiarity in the Tradition of Catholic Social Doctrine, Chapter in Subsidiarity in Comparative Perspective.  Michelle Evans and Augusto Zimmermann (eds.).  Springer.  Villanova University School of Law, School of Law Working Paper Series, 2012, Paper 173.

Jeffrey S. Burwell.  2014.  Pope Francis and Bill 18:  How his vision of non-judgment could temper the ways that administrators of Catholic schools in Manitoba integrate the Safe and Inclusive Schools amendment.  University of Manitoba, St. Paul’s College.

Christian Fiala and Joyce H. Arthur.  2014.  “Dishonourable disobedience” – Why refusal to treat in reproductive healthcare is not conscientious objection.  Women – Psychosomatic Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Volume 1, December 2014, pages 12-23.

Warwick Middleton, Pam Stavropoulos, Martin J. Dorahy, Christa Kruger, Roberto Lewis-Fernandez, Alfonso Martinez-Taboas, Vedat Sar and Bethany Brand.  2014.  The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual AbuseAustralian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Volume 48, Number 17, pages 17-21.  DOI: 10.1177/0004867413514639

Kurt Nelson.  2014.  Review of Faith, Resistance, and the Future:  Daniel Berrigan’s Challenge to Catholic Social Thought.  James L. Marsh and Anna J. Brown (Eds.).  New York:  Fordham University Press, 2012.  (Available in libraries, bookstores and online.) Journal of Catholic Education, Volume 17, Issue 2, Article 11, pages 175-178.

Gareth C. Payne, Rebecca E. Payne, and Daniel M. Farewell.  2008.  Rugby (the religion of Wales) and its influence on the Catholic Church.  Should Pope Benedict XVI be worried?  BMJ.com  doi:10.1136/bmj.a2768

 

Freedom of Speech:

Zechariah Chafee, J.  1919.  Freedom of Speech in War TimeHarvard Law Review, Volume 32, No. 8 (Jun., 1919), pages 932-973.

Erwin Chemerinsky.  2000.  Content Neutrality as a Central Problem of Freedom of Speech:  Problems in the Supreme Court’s ApplicationS. Cal. L. Rev. 74:  49.

Charles C. Helwig.  1995.  Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Conceptions of Civil Liberties:  Freedom of Speech and ReligionChild Development, Volume 66, Number 1,  Pages 152-166.

Lasa Sun.  2014.  The role of diversity on freedom of speech in democratic societiesInternational Journal of Sustainable Human Development, Volume 2, Number 2, pages 44-51.

Gary Watt.  2014.  Judicial Allusion as Ornament:  A Response to John Curtis’s, ‘Twitter, King Lear, and the Freedom of Speech.’  Exchanges: the Warwick Research Journal, Volume 1, No. 2.  University of Warwick.

 

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I have given myself a big list to prepare for you!  A combined bibliography with links will be available soon.  If I take too long, please send a  note.  It helps to know there are people waiting for these.

 

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Now, go read!  Then make up your own mind and leave a comment…

Also, please add links to more articles and books in the comments.  There is so much more!